Theme 5. Adaptation to climate change

Theme 5. Adaptation to climate change

  • Adapt to them in a least harmful way and communicate the impacts to the society and policy makers. When the impacts can be avoided low-cost, do so. Encouraging tourism (business travel, frequent travel, meetings non-stop) is part of the CC problem so avoid it. EMUNI
  • Climate change impacts cannot be addressed in the same way for affected metropolitan areas and coastal ecosystems. Rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems with the implementation of nature-based solutions could be a good start but the results will not be effective if major infrastructures (in land, river basin districts and coastal areas) continue being developed without the proper environmental impact assessment. We do not need additional research here, we need a better understanding of national authorities of their own responsibility mitigating the impacts of climate change in coasts and marine areas of the Mediterranean. IOC-UNESCO
  • Agriculture and fisheries, aquaculture and forestry, wildlife and urbanisation are part of the same integrated approach. We need to push up the trade-offs towards sustainability. FAO
  • enforced maritime protection, coastal protection, sustainable river basin management of Med rivers, strategies for the conservation of cultural landscapes and urban heritage, development of resilience strategies to climate change. MED JS
  • Reduction of carbonic gaz emission in different ways and minimize terrestrial wastes. INSTM – Tunisia
  • Governments need to implement adaptation options such as cost-effective coastal protection measures, resilient infrastructures and utilities, coastal and marine spatial planning, regulations/legation and controls for marine pollution and sustainable development.
    3. Mediterranean African governments need to promote the existing opportunities and partnership for the private sector engagement in the implementation of adaptation measures in coastal and urban zones.  National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF),Egypt
  • We need to invest more research and funding in nature-based solutions. Many intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats (including oyster reefs, saltmarshes, seagrasses) can attenuate local currents, dampen wave energy and accrete and stabilize sediments, thereby acting as effective buffer against flooding and erosion. These nature-based defenses are more sustainable and cost-effective than conventional coastal engineering and offer additional benefits, as restored ecosystems can support an array of other critical services, including water purification, carbon sequestration, nursery for fisheries, and space for wildlife and recreation. Also, nature-based solutions have greater potential to self-maintain and face change than traditional engineered approaches.  In some countries forward-looking policies have begun to encourage pre-disaster spending (both public and private) that explicitly supports the use of natural infrastructure for risk reduction driving innovation towards new solutions for both preventative and recovery efforts.  University of Bolognae
  • -Launch studies to assess the effect of CC on coastal regions,
    -Sensitize governments to launch anticipatory actions to combat the effect of CC. National Institute of Marine Sciences and Technologies (Tunisia)
  • 1-Activating the penal code for violators and those who cause environmental pollution
    2-Adopting entrepreneurial ideas to solve these problems
    3-Financial plans to implement reform projects annually
    4-Activating the services policy between the countries of the Union in facing these challenges through cooperation among them by forming teams to determine the size of these problems and cooperation in facing them.  Ministry of Economy – Palestine
  • Increase scientific knowledge on specific climate change impacts in the Mediterranean coastal areas and propose nature-based solutions as much as possible. Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna
  • Elaboration of recent studies about impact of climate change on Tourism coastal activities.  AMFORHT
  • The Mediterranean, due to its strategic position, is the only sea we can protect from the rising waters of the Atlantic Ocean as a result of the polar thaw. With this project, 24 countries can benefit at the same time and so will not have to do so individually (See MOSE in Venice); moreover, there are more than 15,000 islands and thousands of km of coastline that can be protected.  Presa Puente Estrecho de Gibraltar, SA
  • Protéger ce qu’on a déjà et préparer les gens et les lieux pour les effets des changements qui sont connus pour le moment.  DynMed Alentejo – Associação para Estudos e Projectos de Desenvolvimento Regional Projectos de Dese
  • Mettre en place un système de prédiction et de modélisation numérique pour évaluer les impacts des solutions à réaliser.  Association Tunisienne de l’Ingénierie Côtière, Portuaire et Maritime (ATIM)
  • Promote actions such as smart cities but in other areas and sectors: smart MPAs, smart ports, smart wetlands and coastal habitats management. Our research group is working on this (Smart marine protected areas).  UNIVERSIDAD DE MURCIA
  • Very clear timetabled realistic adaptation measures for the coastal zones including MPAs. This is again to be joined with very clear cooperation mechanism between the north and south and a robust stakeholder engagement.  RAED – Arab Network for Environment and Development
  • Scientific research and confidence in the scientific experts should be addressed.
    Ecological engineering of shorelines schemes is an evolving discipline with the aim of building more inclusive, resilient, and safe coastal and marine structures for people and nature that maximize benefits for ecosystems, society, and economies.
    To achieve a significant ecological uplift in urban waterfronts and coastalines there is a need for large-scale implantation, calling for practical solutions that can be simply and cost-effectively implemented by the conservative construction industry.
    In an era of accelerated coastal development, we must promote innovative ways for developing more productive urban coastlines: “Living” urban/hard waterfronts that generate thriving habitats, instead of barren concrete seascapes.
    The application of innovation, new technologies and designs that include and adapt to natural ecosystems and marine habitats is revealed as indispensable to face Climate Change.  ECONCRETE
  • – To implement nature-based solutions when possible
    – To conserve natural coastal zones, or to promote the restoration of them, and to avoid urbanization with sustainable urban planning
    – To apply a Circular Economy approach in the process of transforming the way we produce and consume goods and manage waste in coastal cities.   BETA Tech Center, UVic/UCC – Interreg MED Green Growth
  • Invest in science and capacity development.   METU Institute of Marine Sciences
  • Coastal protection strategies and plans should overcome the overlapping competences as and become really integrated, based on the best available knowledge and considering the complexity of marine, costal and terrestrial ecosystems. Coastal protection strategies must go hand in hand with river basin ones. We need to pass from “holding the line” to assume quite a degree of variability in our coastline , accept  managed retreat as an option and explore the full potential of nature based solutions investing on the restoration of crucial coastal habitats as dunes systems and wetlands. The location of all types of infrastructures needs to also reconsider in territorial and city planning, maintaining at the coastline only those which cannot be elsewhere. According to this, a directive seems to be needed in order to make the member states to preserve their shores from extreme urbanization (housing, ports, etc.).
    Non-MPA dunes, wetlands and coastal ecosystems must be protected by urban and territorial plans and laws.  A Mediterranean inventory must be created in order to protect those areas.  MedCities
  • Targeted projects for stakeholders on coastal erosion and other imminent threats as a result of climate change in which best practices will be adopted and share among partners.  REGION WESTERN GREECE
  • First of all act for mitigation!.   University of Siena
  • Launch an integrated Programme on climate adaptation and mitigation strategies coupling Climate Change and Blue Growth activities. The Programme shall target the Mediterranean coasts tackling the impact of global change on Mediterranean marine ecosystems (food webs, biodiversity, habitats) and therefore on the following key social and economic drivers: fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, transport routes. Exploit appropriate observing systems (coastal-monitoring, early warning, platforms, etc.), adopt MSP tools to support management policies and share good practices and awareness raising of the populations among “maritime” cities to finally define a new green-blue strategy for the sustainable development of coastal cities, towards a zero emission circular economy, a reduction of pollution in adjacent shallow or deep seas, a wiser use of fresh water reservoirs, a preservation of fragile ecosystems and a mitigation of the impact of accelerating sea level rise.  National Research Council of Italy
  • – Ensure ecosystem resilience to climate change by protecting key functional habitats and species and by achieving sustainable development within the limit of marine ecosystem
    – Support the development of new Green/Blue infrastructures to achieve an interconnected network of managed areas able to deliver ecosystem services
    – Integrate and mainstream Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) within National Action Plans, climate actions and initiatives, and climate policy-related instruments
    – Increase international and national, and public and private funding into NBS
    – Develop new efficient restoration plans for degraded coastal and marine habitats such as seagrass meadows, macroalgal forest, coralligenous assemblages, and coastal wetlands and develop new technological solutions in coastal infrastructures (i.e. eco-engineering as artificial nursery areas)
    – Support ecosystem-based ICZM and ensure it includes measures to enhance carbon sequestration and/or to protect carbon sinks.   WWF
  • Chaque pays doit disposer d’une stratégie nationale pour faire face au changement climatique. Mais les stratégies doivent être complémentaires.  Ministère de l’agriculture, pêche maritime, développement durable eaux et forêts: département pêche maritime – Maroc
  • Land reclamation and underwater mining should be monitored to ensure that they follow set rules to safeguard the environment.  Malta Maritime Forum
  • The role of Marine protected areas must be considered as a marine spatial management tool in supporting ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation to climate change (see recommendations from the 2020 Mediterranean MPA Roadmap / axis 5 – 2nd edition of the Mediterranean MPA Forum in Tangier in 2016).
    Interesting recommendations from the MPA-Adapt Interreg Med project (coordinated by IUCN Med).  MedPAN, the Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Network
  • – Mainstream Nature-based solutions into national plans related to climate mitigation and adaptation, such as the NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) and NAPs (National Adaptation Plans) required under the Paris Agreement and DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction) plans in accordance with the Sendai Framework.
    – Sustainably manage coastal and marine ecosystems, including wetlands, to enhance their capacity as carbon sinks and climate buffers, restore depleted fish stocks and protect marine biodiversity.  Med Blue Growth community
  • Climate change impacts should be well assessed and shared to regional, national and local policy and decision makers in order to promote adequate policies and actions of mitigation and adaptation, based on Nature and Ecosystem Approach.  eco-union
  • Climate change as a global threat couldn’t be faced in a reactive response, but rather through proactive measures, where the big polluter countries should abide by the recommendations of international treaties (The Paris Agreement, The Kyoto Protocol) in a compulsory way, not to be a choice! Otherwise, the impact of isolated, localized interventions at the national level, even consolidated, couldn’t reach the desired results of mitigating the repercussions of the climate change. The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic and the global freezing of airplanes navigation, cars traffic and factories’ emissions, a clear decrease in air pollution has been noticed, which will reflect positively towards mitigating the effects of climate change, shows that globally synchronized measures is the only way to reach plausible results in this regard. This time was compulsory, we hope that we continue adopting it with free will!.  Green Community NGO
  • Je ne vois pas comment lutter contre l’augmentation du niveau de la mer.
    Les ports doivent pouvoir réduire leurs émissions
    Les ports doivent électrifier leurs infrastructures afin de militer les émissions à quai.  ECOCEAN
  • Sensibiliser les concepteurs de nouveaux projet et adapter les projets existantssensibiliser les concepteurs de nouveaux projet et adapter les projets existants.  Agence nationale des ports Maroc
  • The Mediterranean Basin has lost about 50 % of its coastal wetlands over the last 50 years due to uncontrolled coastal infrastructure developments and intensive water abstraction, both for tourism, agriculture and industry.
    But what is less known and not enough recognised is that healthy wetlands are among the best available and cost-effective nature-based solutions to mitigate and adapt to climate change effects that are already drastically affecting Mediterranean coastal communities, local economies and natural ecosystems.
    The many services provided by wetlands, and in particular coastal wetlands, to fight climate change include:
    – Absorption and sequestration of carbon: Wetlands are among the world’s most significant carbon sinks (estimates show they store up to 40% of the global carbon emissions)
    – Contribution to mitigate temperature rise during hot waves
    – Flood defences: coastal wetlands disperse and absorb excess water in case of floods due to extreme weather conditions and prevent soil erosion
    – Protection from sea level rising: along the coast, wetlands buffer the land from waves and wind in case of coastal storms and protect cities and other coastal settlements from flood, farmland, drinking water supply and fresh water ecosystems from salty water intrusion.
    – Water provision and purification: while climate change reduce the quantity and the quality of water and demand continue to rise, wetlands store and clean our drinking water
    – Protecting a very rich biodiversity (countless of bird, fish, flora species, etc.) that ensures better resilience of coastal areas to climate change
    – Food provision: sustainable aquaculture and coastal fisheries can both provide important low carbon sources of nutrition while reducing net carbon emission
    To ensure that coastal wetlands continue to provide such positive responses to climate change and benefit the well-being of future generations of people and nature, the following measures have to be put in place and effectively implemented in all the Mediterranean countries:
    – Forbid the conversion of all protected and non-protected coastal wetland ecosystems into farmland, urbanised, touristic or any other artificial coastal developments
    – Encourage increased public and local stakeholder awareness of the importance and values of coastal wetlands as an efficient and cost-effective tool to tackle climate change for coastal human well-being, local economies and natural ecosystems
    – Enhance local governance and stakeholder participation for their sustainable management, conservation and restoration (in Oristano Sardinia, effective local community governance structures are in place to ensure sustainable management of the coastal wetlands)
    – Strengthen national legal and policy arrangements to conserve existing coastal wetlands and their enforcement. (For instance, In Morocco and Algeria national wetlands strategies are in place and developed, new Ramsar sites have been designated as recommended under the Ramsar Convention)
    – Fully integrate coastal wetland conservation into coastal land-use planning and management with the involvement of all relevant national and local stakeholders
    – Apply targeted and inclusive economic and financial incentives for coastal communities and businesses to safeguard and restore coastal wetlands
    – Develop and implement management plans with nature-based solutions for all coastal Ramsar site and other protected coastal wetlands ( in Oristano, for instance riparian areas of lagoons/ponds and wetlands are restored with native plants, buffer strips using natural vegetation are used to replace old concrete cladding to mitigate impacts of farming run-off, reduce erosion, alien species are removed, etc.)
    – Ensure connectivity of marine and terrestrial coastal systems integrating conservation measures on land and sea to preserve natural environmental processes
    – Ensure water flow from inland watersheds to coastal wetlands and reduce water abstraction
    – Carry out or update national inventories of coastal wetlands
    – Recall Mediterranean countries’ commitments vis à vis the Ramsar convention, the Barcelona convention, the Paris Agreement on Climate change, the global biodiversity strategy and in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in 2030
    – Ensure coordinated actions at the regional level to ensure enhanced conservation, sustainable management and restoration of coastal wetlands and exchange of good practices between Mediterranean countries.    MedWet
  • NOAH ReGen propose de créer des NOAH EcoReGions pour apporter une réponse holistique à cette problématique.
    1) on déploie des NOAH’s Arks, les headquarters de la Blue Growth
    2) on invite les membres du NOAH Blue Consortium et les start-ups incubées, soutenus par la plateforme financière Blended NOAH’s BEIP, à déployer à partir des NOAH’s Arks, des solutions innovantes (off-shores) pour les grandes thématiques (food safety, wast management, energetic transition, coastal & biodiversity conservency…)
    3) on invite les membres du NOAH Blue Consortium et les start-ups incubées, soutenus par la plateforme financière Blended NOAH’s BEIP, à déployer à partir des NOAH’s Arks, des solutions de régénération des terres côtières et rivières (wet lands): agroreforestation, dépollution des rivières, régénération des coraux. En effet, les pollutions maritimes qui entrainent des réactions en cascades, sont malheureusement impossible à traiter une fois en mer. Il est plus aisé et moins coûteux d’opérer en amont, sur terre.
    Pour la partie “blended finance” il faut s’appuyer sur une “révolution financière” et créer des outils adaptés: Blue Credits, Blue Bonds, Blue Crowdfunding, Blue stock exchange, Blue coins…
    De tels outils connectés avec les agences de mesures d’impacts pourront aussi compter sur le carbon credit pour dé-risquer les investissements et mobiliser le secteur privé.  NOAH ReGen
  • -Programmer des actions de sensibilisations auprès des  acteurs maritimes , des usagers portuaires, des riverains, ….;
    -Encadrer les activités maritimes des villes côtières ( activités touristiques, activités de la pèche, activités nautiques,  activités portuaires…)
    -Renforcer les actions de contrôle de l’exercice de ces activités par les autorités étatiques  locales;
    -Mise en place d’un cadre juridique adéquat pour la réduction de l’impact du changement climatiques sur les ports et les villes côtières.  IMFMM
  • Reduction of carbonic gaz emission in different ways and minimize terrestrial wastes.   AVITEM
  • A good response always need good evaluation and knowledge of the situation. As a consequence, long time series of data will be needed to validate models, so Ocean Observation  Systems must be fostered, including in-situ and satellite data.  Regional Cluster “North-East”
  • The  increase  in  economic  activities,  high  urbanization,  increased  resource  use  and  population  growth is continuously increasing the vulnerability of the coastal zone. This vulnerability is now further raised by the threat of climate change and accelerated sea-level rise.
    Adaptations may reduce negative impacts and in some cases can even enable some systems to take advantage of the new conditions induced by climate changes. Human-induced stresses and non-sustainable management options can greatly influence the vulnerability, sensitivity and adaptability of a system. In addition, the economic and institutional context influences the capacity of the system to adopt suitable responses to climate change.  MedWet
  • The Mediterranean Basin has lost about 50 % of its coastal wetlands over the last 50 years due to uncontrolled coastal infrastructure developments and intensive water abstraction, both for tourism, agriculture and industry.
    But what is less known and not enough recognised is that healthy wetlands are among the best available and cost-effective nature-based solutions to mitigate and adapt to climate change effects that are already drastically affecting Mediterranean coastal communities, local economies and natural ecosystems.
    The many services provided by wetlands, and in particular coastal wetlands, to fight climate change include:
    – Absorption and sequestration of carbon: Wetlands are among the world’s most significant carbon sinks (estimates show they store up to 40% of the global carbon emissions)
    – Contribution to mitigate temperature rise during hot waves
    – Flood defences: coastal wetlands disperse and absorb excess water in case of floods due to extreme weather conditions and prevent soil erosion
    – Protection from sea level rising: along the coast, wetlands buffer the land from waves and wind in case of coastal storms and protect cities and other coastal settlements from flood, farmland, drinking water supply and fresh water ecosystems from salty water intrusion.
    – Water provision and purification: while climate change reduce the quantity and the quality of water and demand continue to rise, wetlands store and clean our drinking water
    – Protecting a very rich biodiversity (countless of bird, fish, flora species, etc.) that ensures better resilience of coastal areas to climate change
    – Food provision: sustainable aquaculture and coastal fisheries can both provide important low carbon sources of nutrition while reducing net carbon emission
    To ensure that coastal wetlands continue to provide such positive responses to climate change and benefit the well-being of future generations of people and nature, the following measures have to be put in place and effectively implemented in all the Mediterranean countries:
    – Forbid the conversion of all protected and non-protected coastal wetland ecosystems into farmland, urbanised, touristic or any other artificial coastal developments
    – Encourage increased public and local stakeholder awareness of the importance and values of coastal wetlands as an efficient and cost-effective tool to tackle climate change for coastal human well-being, local economies and natural ecosystems
    – Enhance local governance and stakeholder participation for their sustainable management, conservation and restoration (in Oristano Sardinia, effective local community governance structures are in place to ensure sustainable management of the coastal wetlands)
    – Strengthen national legal and policy arrangements to conserve existing coastal wetlands and their enforcement. (For instance, In Morocco and Algeria national wetlands strategies are in place and developed, new Ramsar sites have been designated as recommended under the Ramsar Convention)
    – Fully integrate coastal wetland conservation into coastal land-use planning and management with the involvement of all relevant national and local stakeholders
    – Apply targeted and inclusive economic and financial incentives for coastal communities and businesses to safeguard and restore coastal wetlands
    – Develop and implement management plans with nature-based solutions for all coastal Ramsar site and other protected coastal wetlands ( in Oristano, for instance riparian areas of lagoons/ponds and wetlands are restored with native plants, buffer strips using natural vegetation are used to replace old concrete cladding to mitigate impacts of farming run-off, reduce erosion, alien species are removed, etc.)
    – Ensure connectivity of marine and terrestrial coastal systems integrating conservation measures on land and sea to preserve natural environmental processes
    – Ensure water flow from inland watersheds to coastal wetlands and reduce water abstraction
    – Carry out or update national inventories of coastal wetlands
    – Recall Mediterranean countries’ commitments vis à vis the Ramsar convention, the Barcelona convention, the Paris Agreement on Climate change, the global biodiversity strategy and in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in 2030
    – Ensure coordinated actions at the regional level to ensure enhanced conservation, sustainable management and restoration of coastal wetlands and exchange of good practices between Mediterranean countries.  arco latino
  • It is clear that more land needs to be returned to it initial state by allowing the development of more extensive dunes and wetlands. Unfortunately savage occupation of a large area of the Mediterranean cost has led to the current situation due to unbridled economic interests. There is no buffer zone between wetlands and building. Mega developments are still ongoing in Spain and Portugal despite the obvious threats from the sea. Legislation, perceptions and council land management need to be in step. It is not feasible to think of sea protection for all cities at risk. New planning and retreat will be necessary. In some places it may make sense to build defences but in others the land should be returned to the sea to build defences. It is important to create a buffer zone and not spend millions and millions on fighting a battle we are going to lose. Clearly new developments planned for coastal regions (plenty more around) should be stopped, there should be proof that the area under development is outside the risk region. Public interest declaration is used to overcome all laws and sense to permit large building projects advance. Incentive schemes for councils/countries that take protective steps.  Universidad de Murcia
  • Less Carbon dioxide emissions, green energy strategies and massive campaigns of reforestation even though it won’t be on coastal zone areas.  Lebanese University – Green Community
  • Le changement climatique fait que les infrastructures portuaires actuelles sont gravement touchées (par exemplela tempête Gloria en Catalogne et l’Occitanie, janvier 2020) et ne font plus office d’ouvrages de protection. Cela

    a conduit à une situation d’urgence climatique. Un nouveau modèle de gestion est nécessaire, planifier des

    actions conjointes, échanger des expériences, générer des modèles de prévision climatique, des plans d’urgence,

    la formation des travailleurs, etc. Le secteur doit évoluer vers un modèle de gestion plus durable, appliquant de

    nouvelles technologies et basé sur l’Économie Bleue.  CIPPM

  • Rationaliser les politiques des ports maritimes dans le sens de préserver l’environnement
    -préserver le patrimoine côtier.  Conseil de la Région de l’Oriental
  • 1. In Governance and management of coastal areas a change of paradigm is needed: the littoral and the beach must be considered as the “first protection structure” for the inland against climate change effects (sea level rise, increase frequency of severe sea storms, salt water intrusion, etc.), beyond its business and recreational function traditionally considered.
    Actions on the littorals (beaches, low and high cliffs) should be driven firstly by the concept that we are managing and intervening on the main protection structure for the inland (human settlements, infrastructures, habitats, natural protected areas, etc.);
    2. The inland protection function represented by littorals, must be considered in the evaluation of the ecosystem service of beaches and cliff systems;
    3. For climate change adaptation, the inland protection function of the littorals must be managed and enhanced in an integrated way, taking into consideration interactions between human activities and infrastructures and interactions between these and the environment, (ecosystems, habitats, natural protected areas) and the effective cost-benefit of the different possible solutions;
    4. The value of inland protection function of the littorals, must be considered properly (giving proper weight, with scientific methods) in the cost-benefit evaluation of the different solutions, for the human being itself, for ecosystems, habitats, etc, as well as also coastal interventions should be made accountable;
    5. In order to give an effective System-Response at Mediterranean level to the challenges of the climate change along the coasts, they should be promoted and supported new and existing initiatives, as the Bologna Charter initiative (www.bolognacharter.eu) sharing common strategy, creating synergies, exchanging practices and technologies, enhancing the cooperation between the Authorities (today 29 Authorities in the Med area undersigned plus the CPMR-IMC), of different government level, competent on coastal protection and management. The Bologna Charter policy paper and its Joint Action Plan indicate measures and lines of action that would be encompassed in a effective strategy for Adapting to climate change the coastal areas and human settlements, infrastructures, natural protected areas along with:
    a. deepening knowledge on phenomena, modelling, territory response, support technology;
    b. enhance/restore the resilience of the coastal systems in terms of restore opportune spaces in order to let the natural processes develop and “be absorbed” without directly affecting the elements of interests;
    c. move back settlements, infrastructures, habitats that have to be protected; settlements and infrastructures can be also -or in alternative- raised up according with climate change effect scenarios, sea level rise, high waters, storm surges, etc.;
    d. adopt early warning systems based on forecasting modelling, coupled with civil protection plans, protection devices, measures, or evacuation plans;
    e. reach and dynamically maintain -according with changing scenarios- opportune quota of the littorals in relation to expected sea level rise, higher winter waters -highly probable- or severe storm surges -less probable-, salt water intrusion, etc. (i.e. with beach nourishment, “sand motor” systems, dune systems restoration, etc.);
    f. consolidate low and high coastal cliffs subjected to erosion or landslide/rockfall threatening specific elements of interests;
    g. restore river solid transport to re-activate the natural nourishment processes of the littorals;
    h. reduce the withdrawal of fluids from the underground (water, gas, etc.) to reduce subsidence in the coastal areas and/or activate fluid re-injection operations in the reservoir rocks underground;
    6. Nature-based solutions should be preferred, normally, despite to hard works, anyway always according with evidence of cost-benefit evaluation, including costs of maintenance and of monitoring of effectiveness and, for hard works also including its reversibility and the relative costs;
    7. Moving backwards (of settlements, infrastructures, habitat, etc.) and “no intervention” should be options always taken into consideration in evaluation of actions and impact assessment, both at large and local scale interventions or in overall strategies.    CPRM
  • Préparer une liste de recommandations/adaptations pour faire face aux effets négatifs liés aux changements climatiques.
    Mener des actions anticipatives sur terrain pour renforcer la capacité de résistance de l’infrastructure existante.  ASSOCIATION DE PROTECTION DU LITTORAL A MAAMOURA – APLM
  • La priorité doit être donnée à permettre la restauration des espaces anthropisés (dunes, bords de plage…) et avoir des zones tampons neutres d’édifices ou de bétons ou peu peuplées capables d’absorber les grandes crises climatiques de plus en plus fréquentes.  eurorégion Pyrénés Méditerranée
  • Les mesures à mettre en œuvre pour faire face aux impacts des changements climatiques sur les villes côtières il faut renforcer la loi sur le littoral par ses textes d’application et veiller à l’application de cette loi et du plan national du littoral.  Ministère de l’Energie, des Mines et de l’Environnement/Département de l’Environnement
  • Protéger les dunes  côtières  et favoriser  les initiatives telle que  la fixation des dunes pour diminuer les érosion côtières
    Interdire les aménagements qui sont source  de pollution et interdire le ramassage de sables à  usage de construction   fermer les brèches pour  atténuer les inondations.et les incursions marines dont souffrent plusieurs pays.
    Faire des campagnes de sensibilisation  sur les impacts  des changements climatiques et établir  des projets sur l’atténuation  des effets  du changements climatiques  par le biais du nettoyage des plages .   ONG ASSISTANCE COMMUNAUTAIRE et développement ASCOM
  • La participation de l’UpM dans la négociation de programmes de gestion directe de l’Union Européenne puis des Fonds Structurels et d’Investissement Européens, dans le but de faire présents ces objectifs, puis une meilleure coordination avec la Commission Européenne (DG CLIMA, DG ENVE, DG REGIO et autres).  Generalitat Valenciana
  • – Établir les cartes de vulnérabilité des côtes de la Méditerranée;
    – Mettre en place des mécanismes de financement pour la protection des différentes zones côtières en fonction du niveau de leur vulnérabilité au changement climatique ;
    – La nécessité de disposer de données scientifiques (climatiques, biologiques, chimiques, physiques, etc.), permettant de parvenir à une gestion durable et intégrée des zones côtières et du milieu marin ;
    – Intégrer les cartes de vulnérabilité dans les cartes d’aménagement afin de définir les zones sensibles et assurer la durabilité des aménagements.
    – L’adaptation des infrastructures portuaires aux changements climatiques, à travers notamment la surélévation des côtes d’arase des ouvrages de protection portuaires.
    – Intégrer le changement climatique et la durabilité de l’environnement dans les plans, politiques et textes de lois en vigueur ou à venir portant sur l’économie bleue;
    – Concevoir et renforcer le cadre assurant la promotion d’infrastructures à l’épreuve du climat et respectueuses de l’environnement (ports verts, recours aux technologies reposant sur les énergies renouvelables, etc.);
    – Améliorer la réduction des risques de catastrophe par la mise en place ou le renforcement des systèmes d’alerte précoce (plateformes de connaissances, formation et renforcement des capacités, recensement des zones les plus exposées, campagnes d’information…);
    – Renforcer les capacités des pays membres pour la préparation de montages financiers innovants en matières de projet de résilience des infrastructures face aux changements climatiques.   DIRECTION DES PORTS ET DU DOMAINE PUBLIC MARITIME
  • 1) Favoriser la recherche et la coopération scientifique sur le changement climatique et améliorer la disponibilité et l’utilisation de données, d’informations et d’outils fiables pour garantir une prise de décision mieux informée.
    2) Soutenir la mise en œuvre de mesures d’adaptation efficaces, efficientes et durables, en favorisant les solutions basées sur la nature, notamment pour les zones humides, en réhabilitant leurs services écosystémiques.
    3) Renforcer la résilience des populations côtières les plus vulnérables, en protégeant les écosystèmes dont elles dépendent pour leurs moyens de subsistance.
    4) Créer des réseaux (Hubs) éducation-industrie-pouvoirs publics au niveau méditerranéen pour cartographier les activités éducatives existantes, permettre la mise en commun et le partage des meilleures pratiques, développer des programmes de formation communs avec l’aide du MedECC et favoriser la mobilité transnationale des apprenants et des enseignants.
    5) Promouvoir les réformes institutionnelles, politiques et juridiques pour une intégration efficace des mesures d’adaptation au changement climatique
    6) Tirer parti des mécanismes de financement climatique existants et émergents, y compris les instruments internationaux et nationaux.   Université Mohammed V de Rabat
  • The impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean area, particularly on coastal cities and beaches, could be terrible if no action will be taken as soon as possible. There is no shared policy between states to fight this situation. What we need is to agree on policies to protect the coastal areas from new infrastructures and buildings, and to take action on adaptation policies in all countries. We need to share best practices and policies, measures to defend people and urban spaces from the impact of flooding and heat waves, and to put resources to finance these interventions.  Legambiente Onlus
  • Perform local outreach campaign to involve the society on the climate change problem, how it affects locally and make them part of the solution.  Cartagena Oceanographic Research Institute
  • We need better local forecast model merging oceanographic, meteorological and ecological model to help us to understand better the consequences of the climate change on the coastal areas.  Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena
  • 1. In Governance and management of coastal areas a change of paradigm is needed: the littoral and the beach must be considered as the “first protection structure” for the inland against climate change effects (sea level rise, increase frequency of severe sea storms, salt water intrusion, etc.), beyond its business and recreational function traditionally considered.
    Actions on the littorals (beaches, low and high cliffs) should be driven firstly by the concept that we are managing and intervening on the main protection structure for the inland (human settlements, infrastructures, habitats, natural protected areas, etc.);
    2. The inland protection function represented by littorals, must be considered in the evaluation of the ecosystem service of beaches and cliff systems;
    3. For climate change adaptation, the inland protection function of the littorals must be managed and enhanced in an integrated way, taking into consideration interactions between human activities and infrastructures and interactions between these and the environment, (ecosystems, habitats, natural protected areas) and the effective cost-benefit of the different possible solutions;
    4. The value of inland protection function of the littorals, must be considered properly (giving proper weight, with scientific methods) in the cost-benefit evaluation of the different solutions, for the human being itself, for ecosystems, habitats, etc, as well as also coastal interventions should be made accountable;
    5. In order to give an effective System-Response at Mediterranean level to the challenges of the climate change along the coasts, they should be promoted and supported new and existing initiatives, as the Bologna Charter initiative (www.bolognacharter.eu) sharing common strategy, creating synergies, exchanging practices and technologies, enhancing the cooperation between the Authorities (today 29 Authorities in the Med area undersigned plus the CPMR-IMC), of different government level, competent on coastal protection and management. The Bologna Charter policy paper and its Joint Action Plan indicate measures and lines of action that would be encompassed in a effective strategy for Adapting to climate change the coastal areas and human settlements, infrastructures, natural protected areas along with (letters from a. to h.):
    a. deepening knowledge on phenomena, modelling, territory response, support technology;
    b. enhance/restore the resilience of the coastal systems in terms of restore opportune spaces in order to let the natural processes develop and “be absorbed” without directly affecting the elements of interests;
    c. move back settlements, infrastructures, habitats that have to be protected; settlements and infrastructures can be also -or in alternative- raised up according with climate change effect scenarios, sea level rise, high waters, storm surges, etc.;
    d. adopt early warning systems based on forecasting modelling, coupled with civil protection plans, protection devices, measures, or evacuation plans;
    e. reach and dynamically maintain -according with changing scenarios- opportune quota of the littorals in relation to expected sea level rise, higher winter waters -highly probable- or severe storm surges -less probable-, salt water intrusion, etc. (i.e. with beach nourishment, “sand motor” systems, dune systems restoration, etc.);
    f. consolidate low and high coastal cliffs subjected to erosion or landslide/rockfall threatening specific elements of interests;
    g. restore river solid transport to re-activate the natural nourishment processes of the littorals;
    h. reduce the withdrawal of fluids from the underground (water, gas, etc.) to reduce subsidence in the coastal areas and/or activate fluid re-injection operations in the reservoir rocks underground;
    6. Nature-based solutions should be preferred, normally, despite to hard works, anyway always according with evidence of cost-benefit evaluation, including costs of maintenance and of monitoring of effectiveness and, for hard works also including its reversibility and the relative costs;
    7. Moving backwards (of settlements, infrastructures, habitat, etc.) and “no intervention” should be options always taken into consideration in evaluation of actions and impact assessment, both at large and local scale interventions or in overall strategies.  Emilia-Romagna Region
  • • Climate neutrality should be achieved by all EU territories by 2050 without excluding any region and without threatening the accessibility of peripheral regions, only accessible by airway and seaway.
    • The Regulation(s) that would guide the transition should ensure a certain level of flexibility allowing different energy sources and modal mixes depending on territorial characteristics.
    • Peripheral maritime regions should be considered as innovation labs to develop and test new and innovative transport solutions, while a fitted transport investment Plan towards climate neutrality by 2050 should be drafted.
    • The inclusion of the Motorways of the Sea in the TEN-T Regulation as part of the Green Deal should be sought too.
    • In this sense, successful practices could be explored for transfer between all shores of the Mediterranean so that the whole of the basin can keep evolving towards more climate neutral economies. It is important that threshold be increasingly aligned, investments accordingly performed depending on national situations, and potentially the idea of a Mediterranean “Green Deal” co-developed and co-owned for implementation by all Mediterranean countries.
    Energy efficiency & CC: (ENERMED, MARIE, ELIHMED, SHERPA Interreg Med projects). Some recommendations advised for a more centralised and integrated approach regarding the supervision of local energy agencies and private stakeholders, the coordination of financial and administrative instruments and procedures and the establishment of energy strategies at the regional levels. Other innovative options using energy could be applied to agriculture in Mediterranean territories facing the effects of climate change, using solar/photovoltaic irrigation infrastructures (H2020 SolAqua project). Transnational cooperation is a clear added value in this sense, mainly in terms of capitalisation, communication and exchange of practices.
    Biodiversity and climate: New Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) should be designated and the management of existing ones should be strengthened.
    • Pressures from various economic sectors in the Mediterranean Sea should be reduced to allow the preservation of its biodiversity, mostly of its existing MPAs. It is important to consider pressures by sectors, but also that being accumulated from sector to the other, their impacts are much higher than when only studies then sectorally.
    • Local and regional governance and transborder cooperation are key tools for the efficient implementation of strategies regarding the protection of biodiversity, while the elaboration of regionally accepted ecoregional planning units and platforms designed upon geopolitical and scientific consensus are essential.
    • Mainstream nature-based solutions into national plans related to climate mitigation and adaptation, such as the NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) and NAPs (National Adaptation Plans) required under the Paris Agreement and DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction) plans in accordance with the Sendai Framework.
    • Sustainably manage coastal and marine ecosystems, including wetlands, to enhance their capacity as carbon sinks and climate buffers, restore depleted fish stocks and protect marine biodiversity.  Intermediterranean Commission of CPMR
  • 1. Define an ambitious strategy of adaptation to climate change, as per the specificities of the Mediterranean sea and coasts, building upon the mechanisms developed in the UNEP/MAP – Barcelona Convention decisions, projects and initiatives, such as inter alia the Regional Climate Change Adaptation Framework for the Mediterranean Marine and Coastal Areas and the Common Regional Framework for ICZM;
    2. Evaluate the environmental, economic and social impacts of sea level-rise and coastal hazards, as well as increase of sea temperature, acidification of sea and non-indigenous species proliferation associated with climate change, with a view to ensure mitigation measures, integrated coastal zone management, marine spatial planning and appropriate infrastructure development;
    3. Boost capacity building and involvement of the scientific community, the private sector and civil society in designing and implementing adaptation strategies, and mobilizing funding resources through inter alia subsidies’ reforms and efficient green tax collection;
    4. Consider Nature-based Solutions (NbS) as effective measures for ecosystems function preservation, climate change adaptation and mitigation. Bottlenecks in implementing and scaling-up nature-based solutions should be identified at national and local levels, including administrative and behavioral aspects, and substantial effort invested in relieving these bottlenecks.
    5. Strengthen the socio-economic and science-policy interface components of Mediterranean Experts on Climate and environmental Change (MedECC).  UNEP/MAP Barcelona Convention
  • There is the need to make society understand that having healthy coastal ecosystems is the key to “fight” climate change consequences. Policy makers should also integrate the idea that no development is sustainable and profitable (in long terms) if ecosystem functions and services are at risk. Holistic business models that integrate habitats conservation, economic growth and environmental education should be promoted.  Underwater Gardens International
  • Applying the knowledge available for decision-making under uncertainty, e.g. through science-policy dialogues;
    Improving the climate resilience of long-term infrastructure; better integration of the strategy’s actions with each other and with the international dimension of adaptation;
    Better monitoring of the implementation and effectiveness of national adaptation strategies and plans;
    Encouraging the establishment of local adaptation strategies in countries;
    Improving the analysis of the distributional effects of climate change impacts and adaptation measures.
    Areas for improvement include, among others, exploiting synergies between climate change adaptation, climate change mitigation and disaster risk reduction; facilitating ecosystem-based adaptation; better mainstreaming into the EU maritime and fisheries policy;
    reinforcing the links between public health and adaptation; and better adaptation support to investors and insurers, including private investors.   European Environment Agency
  • To not increase vulnerability of coastal areas by exposing them to climate change impact.
    In order to decrease the exposure to this impact and save these zones, building up of any infrastructure must be forbidden and put into an end.
    Buildings and /or infrastructures with an elevated risk due to the impact of climate change have to be removed from the coastal areas and therefore placed somewhere else in the hinterland.
    In order to not waste money and keep its natural cycle, beaches must not have any maintenance after being stroked by a storm (like Gloria). Ecosystems follow their own natural cycle of cleaning and maintenance so human aid is barely needed in most cases.
    It is key to boost on natural defenses: One of the notables natural improvements to reduce the impacts of storms in beaches are the beds of poseidonia oceanica that help the cleaning of the bottom of the sea and increase the marine life of the ecosystem. Moreover
    sand dunes work as shields to prevent the erosion caused by waves. Marine Protected Areas are key in this sense.  Generalitat de Catalunya
  • To support actions to disseminate to the public the global and regional impacts already unequivocally associated with ongoing climate change, so that it becomes clear that climate change is there and is as real as terrestrial gravity.Produce more heat-resistant agricultural crops, replace business trips with video conferences wherever possible, eat less meat and dairy products, reduce food waste, consume local and seasonal products.

    Think about policy measures to mitigate and contain the effects on coastal areas with a high risk of flooding, and introduce them in planning and land-use planning instruments. Change depends on the willingness of citizens and governments to engage in this necessary transformation.   CCDRAlentejo