iconTheme 7. Marine Litter

Theme 7. Marine Litter

  • Stop pollution from all rivers. Make and popularise a study about the scope of the issue in the Med. In the second step, demand higher environmental standards for discharges. Monitor and quantify the BLuemed Plastic Pilot. EMUNI
  • Regional cooperation, public and private stakeholders’ exchanges, interactions and mobility, food security and sustainability, including respectful working conditions, health and legal certainty are key. IOC-UNESCO
  • Beyond policies (I do not intend to develop here on them) I believe we need to mainstream tools, concrete achievable and applicable to economic actors (fishermen, ports operators, food systems actors, from sustainable fishing to transformation, from logistic to consumption from consumer l’attitude to waste management.
    SDG compliance tools can and should be offered to economic actors. FAO
  • implement cradle-to-cradle design, set framework for creative micro re-use solutions on company/ community/ local scale to be tested and scaled up. MED JS
  • Implementation of regional networking group with different blue actors to evaluate the efforts and big data construction and statistical studies for different activities and their progress. INSTM – Tunisia
  • We need to change perverse policies that prevent what comes from the sea to be re-used. For example, each year significant damage comes from the aquaculture industry from macroalgal blooms, which currently are disposed as special litter with very high costs. These products could be recycled in local agriculture. Similarly, we should explore ways to reuse shells within the maritime industry (e.g. more sustainable concretes). About marine litter, we need: 1) a comprehensive dataset of distribution and impacts of ML and Microplastics MPs in Mediterranean marine ecosystems; 2) a modelling-based tool to visualize distribution and dynamics of MPs across boundaries, to assist decision-makers;  3) novel analytical tools for detecting MP impacts on marine organisms and ecosystems, and vulnerability indicators.  University of Bolognae
  • Awareness campaigns, regional networks on science and technologies, EU-MPC cooperation on biodegradable plastics. CNR
  • -Strong awareness of stakeholders and populations
    -Creation of laws for the application of EB principles.  National Institute of Marine Sciences and Technologies (Tunisia)
  • 1-Reducing products that contain harmful additives to humans
    2-Activating awareness campaigns and educating the public about these products and how to deal with them and their importance
    3-Activating the customer follow-up system after sales services in terms of achieving confidence and safety with customers
    4-Determining the list of merchants who deal with money laundering and holding them accountable
    5-Interest in regional and international cooperation to control money laundering and illegal business
    6-Attention to every entrepreneurial, voluntary, private or governmental work in order to cleanse the sea and beaches from the pollution
    7-Attention to publishing and media education about the accomplishments that are being achieved and the importance of supporting and financing these achievements for their continuity. Ministry of Economy – Palestine
  • Interface with EU programs. Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna
  • Regional cooperation, which has already kicked off, be further enhanced/scaled up.  AMFORHT
  • We must all be aware that our individual actions have a significant influence on the environment of the Mediterranean and of the whole earth in general.  Presa Puente Estrecho de Gibraltar, SA
  • Contrôle administratif et sensibilisation des opérateurs économiques.  DynMed Alentejo – Associação para Estudos e Projectos de Desenvolvimento Regional Projectos de Dese
  • Commençons par appliquer comme il le faut, le protocole relatif à la protection de la mer Méditerranée contre la pollution provenant de sources et activités situées à terre (adopté en 1980, amendé en 1996) et qui est entré en vigueur en 2011 : http://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7096/Consolidated_LBS96_ENG.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y  .  Association Tunisienne de l’Ingénierie Côtière, Portuaire et Maritime (ATIM)
  • 1) use of ICT in process improvement fighting marine litter
    2) to improve the techniques to obtain data related to marine litter and to put in common these data in an open platform to fight in a more effective way
    3) strengthen cooperation at local, regional, national and international levels to combat the problem of marine litter facilitating direct contact between them.   UNIVERSIDAD DE MURCIA
  • There should be a political will to tackle the ML challenge. There is enough knowledge and. capacity to meet the challenge. An enabling environment including legislations and alternatives are needed to make the change.  RAED – Arab Network for Environment and Development
  • The fight against plastics has to be at source, ceasing to produce and use many unnecessary plastics. Every day more perishable products (vegetables, fruits, meats, even fish) are sold in plastic packages, when they could be perfectly sold in bulk.
    The only reason for its existence and increase is the suppression of personnel in large supermarkets and the increase in profits.
    Here the European Commission can do a lot, just as it did with plastic cups, ear buds, etc.   Direcció General de Pesca i Medi Marí. Govern de les Illes Balears (Spain)
  • With regard to circular economy and reshaping our ways of producing and consuming goods:
    Legislative changes are needed in order to extend the sustainability aspects of products on a mandatory level…These aspects should address: enhancement of product durability, reusability, upgradability and repairability; increase in the resource efficiency of products; increase in the recycled content in products; enable remanufacturing and high-quality recycling of products; reduce products environmental footprint; etc.Regarding citizens and consumers and changing their behaviors:
    In addition to setting up effective awareness raising campaigns -that should deliver high-caliber and reliable information towards informed decisions- citizens and consumers should be empowered through appropriate product labelling, the establishment of a “”new right to repair””, availability of repair services, etc.With regard to marine litter tackled at land and at sea:
    Targeted and tailor-made measures should be implemented based on sound scientific evidence and coupled and/or driven by ambitious marine litter targets.
    Single-use items, including specific types of fishing gear should be phased out and replaced by more ‘sustainable’ options as a priority action.
    The misconceptions and uncertainties related to certain measures should be tackled in order to avoid ‘false’ solutions that will worsen the marine litter problem (i.e. to-date there are no plastics that can biodegrade in the marine environment; thus, this shouldn’t even be discussed as a potential solution).With regard to regional cooperation:
    Effective capitalization and mutual learning mechanisms should be put in place to facilitate structured cross-regional exchange of hands-on experiences with regard to the operationalization of measures.
    Operational regional guidelines should be developed to support the effective setup of targeted marine litter prevention and mitigation measures.   Mediterranean Information Office for Environment, Culture and Sustainable Development (MIO-ECSDE)
  • Education, information and dissemination are essential to raise awareness to general population and to specialized and related dependent workers.
    Adoption of innovative materials and technologies are indispensable to tackle this problem.
    More cooperation both between private and public sector and between regions plus the dissemination of the outcomes of that cooperation are also very relevant.
    The prohibition of the use of (non-short-term renewable) plastics and other materials in a certain horizon should be strongly considered and finally implemented.   ECONCRETE
  • – To promote dissemination, transfer and uptake of solutions and innovative tools for measuring and enhancing resource efficiency in different sectors
    – To promote investments to support SMEs in responding to the growing customer demands for sustainable products and services by investing in eco-innovation and resource efficiency along the value chain
    – To address users’ perceptions and to raise awareness among citizens to promote sustainable consumption patterns
    – To put in place policy and legislation to promote resource efficiency and sustainable consumption and production patterns
    – To launch initiatives to reduce litter on land, before it reaches rivers and later on the sea
    – To invest in recycling mechanisms and plants in those countries were it is not implemented.   BETA Tech Center, UVic/UCC – Interreg MED Green Growth
  • Invest in science, develop capacity, co-design robust, doable actions addressing the problem at source.  METU Institute of Marine Sciences
  • Whereas it is clear that the priority lays on prevention, through a change of paradigm of our current production and consumption patterns,  we cannot forget the huge importance of a proper waste collection, management and treatment system to prevent litter and other pollutants entering the environment.
    There is still a huge need to invest on the modernization of waste management Mediterranean wide, the elimination of dumpsites and uncontrolled landfills. Enhancing waste collection, separation and proper management of the organic fraction is still a top priority for Mediterranean coastal cities.
    Regarding wastes generated by sea-based activities, there is a need to increase control of the fulfilment of conditions set by MARPOL Annex V – aiming to eliminate and reduce the amount of garbage being discharged into the sea from ships – stressing also the control of leisure navigation. Adequate port reception facilities should apply to all ports and Mediterranean wide .
    Regarding fisheries support the adoption of sound waste management practices and initiatives and regulations to prevent “abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear “–ALDFG.
    The Responsibility of the Producer Principle must be stablished by laws or commitments among the Mediterranean States.
    Waste Devolution Return Systems must be boosted.
    Tax policies to favor good practices in waste management (firstly prevention) must be extended.   MedCities
  • 1) strong and increasing tax on plastics, especially for single use 2) clean the rivers’ Banks.  University of Siena
  • 1) circularity principles are applied to the economic processes, we re-shape our way of producing and consuming goods, and citizens/consumers change their behavior/habits accordingly:
    • Define distribution, concentration and provenance of all forms of garbage at the sea surface, within the water column, the sea floor and the coastal-estuarine environments; rise awareness through literacy and citizen-science;
    • Quantify impact of plastic waste in terms of economic activities, jobs, well-being of citizens and ecosystems; reduce its generation, prevent littering and exploit opportunities from collection and recycling;
    • Develop regional e-training courses on marine litter for increasing knowledge and awareness.2) ML be tackled both on land and at sea:
    • Measure and identify emerging chemical compounds from terrestrial sources, determining contaminant dispersal in all marine matrices; characterize sources, pathways and effects on marine ecosystems;
    • Fill gaps in understanding the Mediterranean Sea dynamics, biogeographic patterns, biodiversity, and ecosystem functions using novel monitoring, e.g. satellite, marine drones, molecular/genetic tools to develop new end-to-end models forecasting the carrying capacity of the Mediterranean ecosystems. Take into full consideration of long-lasting effects of historical human interventions on coastal systems including river diversions, damming, digging of canals, and construction of hard structures for coastal defense, landfills with toxic materials and spread of pollution through time.  National Research Council of Italy3) regional cooperation, which has already kicked off, be further enhanced/scaled up:
    From regional to global: upscale the BlueMed Pilot Action on Healthy Plastic-free Mediterranean Sea as overarching regional initiative, also in the perspective of implementing the UN-Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Developments Clean Ocean societal objective.
  • – Acknowledge the need for further action to address the plastic pollution issue at national, regional and international levels, in particular by developing a new international legally binding agreement to combat marine plastic pollution on a global level in an integrated manner, and in accordance with the EU new Circular Economy Action Plan;
    – Enhance synergies with the EU new Circular Economy Action Plan and EU Plastic Strategy to ensure a coherent approach to circular economy in the Mediterranean region;
    – Support the process to upgrade UNEP MAP’s Marine Litter Action Plan, including binding targets for waste collection and recycling, in order to eliminate all plastic leakage by 2030.  WWF
  • 1-il y a lieu de revoir les modes de gestion des déchets et la re utilisation des matières consommées notamment celles qui sont non biodégradables
    2- il faut une approche intégrée pour la gestion et la manipulation des déchets de sorte à ce que les communautés puissent mieux gérer les polluants.
    3- un jumelage entre les communes frontalières est aussi un moyen pour assurer les synergies entre pays.  Ministère de l’agriculture, pêche maritime, développement durable eaux et forêts: département pêche maritime – Maroc
  • Reduction on plastics or eliminating it completely in consumer goods will assisting in a sensible reduction of pollution of our seas. Other initiatives in a reduction of certain packaging materials which pollute just as much as plastics.  Malta Maritime Forum
  • Please see recommendations from ACT4LITTER Interreg project and Plastic Busters Interreg project.  MedPAN, the Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Network
  • – Putting the theory of Citizen Science into practice. Citizen science is a process where citizens can become an integral part of the sharing of results and findings within the wider community and the interaction is very much a two-way process. Involving citizens in marine science can offer several advantages such as enhanced monitoring capabilities, empowerment of the citizens and environmental awareness. ens in marine science can offer several advantages such as enhanced monitoring capabilities, empowerment of the citizens and environmental awareness.  Med Blue Growth community
  • Efforts exerted by different projects, programs and stakeholders should be consolidated to identify and characterize the types and origins of ML. Once done, the list of main types of ML and their origins could lead to tackle each major type in a scientific and organized methodology.
    Second, incentivizing and training fishermen and fishing companies on re-collecting (training on diving and sea bottom cleaning) their lost nets, could be a win-win intervention, whereby the problem of ghost nets (and other ML) becomes mitigated, and fishermen redeem their main asset: the nets.
    The third suggestion, is to deal with coast-originated ML. For this, training on and incentivizing upcycling of trash and unwanted items, leads to creating jobs, recycling a huge amount of trash meant to become ML, a source of income generation to selected marginalized people, and an added value to items adopted at green-listed blue-tourism destinations.   Green Community NGO
  • -Poursuivre les recherches sur les nouveaux matériaux vraiment biodégradable.
    -S’attaquer de façon prioritaire sur les rejets des villes dans les fleuves plutôt que de tenter de nettoyer la mer.
    -Interdire l’usage de plastiques en mer (y compris les plastiques biosourcés).   ECOCEAN
  • La sensibilisation aux impacts ds activités humaines sur l’environnement et la biodiversité. Agence nationale des ports Maroc
  • NOAH propose que les plateforme NOAH’s Arks soient utilisées comme vecteur de sensibilisation et d’éducation. Il est obligatoire de changer les modes de consommations, mais plus encore, les comportements individuels.
    L’économie liée à la collecte et la valorisation de la filière plastique n’est pas assez performante pour véritablement mobiliser les fonds nécessaires à la dépollution de plastique, quand celle-ci est encore possible.
    Une fois en mer, la majorité des plastiques coulent et se transforment en micro plastique qu’il n’est plus possible de traiter, ni d’extraire.
    La seule issue efficace est d’informer les individus des dégâts et des conséquences irréversibles générés par ces pollutions plastiques, afin qu’ils prennent conscience de l’importance de la modification individuelle de leurs comportement.
    Les NOAH’s Arks doivent offrir des évènements de sensibilisation ludiques, une exposition itinérante qui passe de NOAH’s Ark en NOAH’s Ark, que toutes les écoles régionales, dès les plus jeunes âges, doivent venir visiter, entendre et comprendre afin que jamais, ces élèves ne génère de pollution plastiques.
    Ces expositions doivent être ouvertes au grand public pour sensibiliser les citoyens non étudiants et doivent être relayées médiatiquement pour toucher le plus grand nombre.
    Enfin, je pense qu’il serait intéressant que les gouvernements proposent un offset pour différentes catégories de citoyens, de participer à une grande campagne de dépollution plastique:
    – les bénéficiaires d’aides et de prestations sociales qui sont sans activités depuis x mois
    – les criminels condamnés à des peines légères
    – ceux ayant des contraventions pécuniaires et qui préfèrent les convertir en dépollution plastique…
    Les gouvernements et les coopérations régionales pourraient offrir des solutions alternatives (obligatoires pour certaines catégories et à discrétion pour d’autres) et envoyer ces individus pour x jours de collectes de déchets plastiques. Cela permettrait de nettoyer à moindre coûts, les zones les plus polluées.
    Encore une fois et en complément, les initiatives financières telles que Blue Credit pourraient aussi offrir de nouvelles façons de produire pour les industries, utiliser les dérivés de plastic issue de la R&D et des ressources maritimes que les NOAH’s Arks et NOAH’s BEIP peuvent contribuer à voir développer.   NOAH ReGen
  • 2) intensification de la sensibilisation au tri, facilitation des collectes, aide aux projets novateurs.  GRAND PORT MARITIME DE MARSEILLE
  • – Mettre en place un grand programme de sensibilisation sur les dangers de la pollution marine causée par les déchets
    – Trouver les meilleures solutions pour les déchets à terre et essayer les rejets en mer des déchets solides
    – Développer davantage les programmes de recherche sur les déchets marins, comment les recycler, etc.
    – Trouver des alternatives pour les produits utilisés en mer, pour qu’ils soient le plus biodégradables, tels que la conception de filets de pêche avec des matériaux biodégradable.  Institut National de Recherche Halieutique
  • The multi-Nationals that are allowed to package everything in layers and layers of plastic and cardboard need to be levied a charge. Alternative means of packing and preservation are needed. Why is the sea full of plastic, waste but also personal hygiene – ban the micro and nanoplastics. Do not treat the sea like a waste dump, give people the perspective of controling output.
    More attention to sewage and urban waste treatment and chemical release, develop and improve systems, bring in wetlands as retention points of waste and sludge. Put the science into practice, but it needs real investment. Set up screening, engage the public buyt outreach , advertising about sources of waste and marine pollution. Fund projects directed at reutilisation of minimisation of plastic waste (eg.  innovative projects), we need to develop new idea, create an ecosystem for testing with companies before moving out to real life testing. The later process needs to be facilitated as it is bureaucratic and so complex companies are just not interested and dont have the people to spare to catalyze change.  Centro de Ciências do Mar, Universidade do Algarve
  • Plastic pollution is a main problem and source of waste in Mediterranean Sea therefore we should ban single use of plastic and this is a main request from UFM to elaborate a policy on Mediterranean level banning the single use of plastic. Also, on activity level, we can organize one day for all Mediterranean countries to clean up beaches.  Lebanese University – Green Community
  • Prendre des initiatives entre les régions dans le cadre de la coopération régionale pour sensibiliser la population locale.  Conseil de la Région de l’Oriental
  • a) Promote the design and production of plastic products that fully respond to reuse, repair, recycling needs;
    b) Reduce and prevent the dispersion of plastic waste environment, particularly in the seas, in waterways and in protected areas;
    c) Promoting action to involve plastics manufacturers in responsibility for the subsequent management of plastic waste;
    d) Measures needed to reduce the use of single-use plastic products for food distribution drinks in public establishments and events, starting with those organized in sensitive areas;
    e) Possibility of reaching an agricultural supply chain agreement fishermen’s and fishermen’s associations aquaculture farmers to introduce forms of simplification of the management of their waste;
    f) Support research and experimental projects leading to eco-friendly solutions to replace current plastics or the use of plastics particularly in the agricultural sector, agri-food and aquaculture farming;
    Measures to reward companies that experiment with plastic solutions free for their products or processes, or that intend to promote the replacement use of materials or plastics eco-friendly.  CPRM
  • Principalement de communication, sensibilisation du grand public consommateurs finaux mais aussi des principaux producteurs de la filière, en intéressant aussi financièrement aux résultats obtenus.  eurorégion Pyrénés Méditerranée
  • 1) Des projets pilotes sont nécessaires pour mettre en évidence d’une part le bénéfice économique du recyclage et du changement des comportements et permettre d’autre part de sensibiliser sur l’obligation de changements d’habitudes en faveur de la réduction des déchets et en particulier des plastiques qui dans la majorité des cas se retrouvent dans les milieux marins.
    2) Renforcer les systèmes de gestion des déchets ménagers qui constituent une grande partie des déchets sur les plages. Intégrer la gestion des déchets marins dans les cahiers de charge des gestionnaires des déchets domestiques. Impliquer les associations, les pêcheurs, et autres partenaires pour la collecte des déchets en mer se trouvant à la surface ou bien au fond de la mer
    3) Mettre en œuvre davantage de projets de coopération en matière de gestion des déchets marins et mettre l’accent sur les projets concrets ayant des résultats tangibles sur le terrain.  Ministère de l’Energie, des Mines et de l’Environnement/Département de l’Environnement
  • Il est nécessaire d’attirer l’attention de tout le monde sur le fait que les ressources sont tarissable et que si des mesures ne sont pas prises nous risquons de ne plus s’en servir dans l’avenir
    Donc nous devons agir avant qu’il ne soit pas tard
    Conscientiser les communautés et attirer leur attention sur la gestion durable et rationnelle des ressources halieutiques.
    Installer des usines de transformation des déchets pour usues des usines de pêche.  ONG ASSISTANCE COMMUNAUTAIRE et développement ASCOM
  • La coopération régionale doit tenir compte d’initiatives et réseaux, comme la WestMed, la CRPM, la Fondation Anna Lindh et autres, puis tirer profit des instruments de l’Union Européenne comme l’ENICBCMED ou l’INTERREG.  Generalitat Valenciana
  • – Ratification de la convention MARPOL et ses annexes et tout amendement ultérieur;
    – Nécessité de mettre en place à chaque port de commerce / groupe de ports une installation de réception portuaire adéquate au type de déchets provenant des navires.
    – Nécessité de mettre en place à chaque installation de réception portuaire d’un plan de réception, traitement, et évacuation des déchets ;
    – Refonte du système de tarification et de recouvrement des couts des installations de réception portuaire.
    – Enlèvement des épaves maritimes.  DIRECTION DES PORTS ET DU DOMAINE PUBLIC MARITIME
  • On the basis of the economic processes an ecosystem-based management approach is needed, especially in the maritime socio-economic sectors that should consider the marine conservation as a priority. Transposing the recent Circular Economy Packages, SUP and Plastic Strategy directives, and convey their principles to the non-EU Mediterranean countries is necessary. Furthermore the practice of reuse needs an harmonized legislation at European level, at least, and its practice should be promoted at Mediterranean level.
    Further support and investments in industrial technologies 4.0, products innovation and improved design; very important is to renew also the logistics and distribution systems of the products, developing new skills and jobs.
    In the meantime awareness-raising measures and consumption reduction through school and citizen education are necessary. Participatory science initiatives should be used for gathering data and sensibilize people (without forgetting the accuracy required in this practice).
    Above all, waste production reduction and good waste management politics are needed, both on coastal and internal agglomerations. It is necessary focusing on rivers and on waste-water treatment plant efficiency. On coastal area is necessary to enlarge the presence of marine protected areas and provide administrators tools to identify the most effective measures to tackle marine litter in their MPAs, sharing good practices among existing networks of MPAs and projects, also consistently with the target 14 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
    Projects are instrument to streamline best practices and recommendations into management and policy instruments, they must be encouraged and addressed awarding the initiatives among EU and non-EU countries.
    Is important to support the research on marine litter fluxes, impacts ML on maritime socio-economic sectors and on biota and on human health in all the Mediterranean basin and sub-basins, but is necessary to promote the necessity for harmonised monitoring protocols; give tools and knowledge to tackle marine litter specifying and define baselines and reduction targets to measure trends and progress.
    To get results in important to ensure effective cross-border cooperation and coordination, especially with non-EU countries, in the sharing of good practices and good waste management but also encouraging the implementation of existing policies promoting the construction of specific networks. An example of this is gave by the Common project, led by Legambiente, focused on Italy, Tunisia and Lebanon. In the project the cross-border cooperation is one of the bases for tackling marine litter and is focused not only to politicians but also to other groups of stakeholders. Building a Network of Coastal cities against marine litter and a Permanent Network for Sea Turtles rescue Centers for marine litter studies are foreseen.  Legambiente Onlus
  • We need to develop new techniques and methodologies that allows us to: perform quantitative and qualitative microplastic concentration on water column and sediments in a fast and secure way, and retrieve the marine litter placed on the sea bottom.  Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena
  • a) Promote the design and production of plastic products that fully respond to reuse, repair, recycling needs;
    b) Reduce and prevent the dispersion of plastic waste environment, particularly in the seas, in waterways and in protected areas;
    c) Promoting action to involve plastics manufacturers in responsibility for the subsequent management of plastic waste;
    d) Measures needed to reduce the use of single-use plastic products for food distribution drinks in public establishments and events, starting with those organized in sensitive areas;
    e) Possibility of reaching an agricultural supply chain agreement fishermen’s and fishermen’s associations aquaculture farmers to introduce forms of simplification of the management of their waste;
    f) Support research and experimental projects leading to eco-friendly solutions to replace current plastics or the use of plastics particularly in the agricultural sector, agri-food and aquaculture farming;
    g) Measures to reward companies that experiment with plastic solutions free for their products or processes, or that intend to promote the replacement use of materials or plastics eco-friendly.   Emilia-Romagna Region
  • Currently, projects and activities are ongoing in the Mediterranean region dealing with the monitoring of ML impacts on the marine ecosystems and on the biota inhabiting them. These activities must first be strengthened (by favoring connection and exchange of data and information among them) and then prolonged over time to ensure our knowledge of the full impacts of ML is increased. While political and governance processes are present in the north of the Med (e.g., UNEP/MAP and MSFD), they are somehow lacking in the south of the region and thus UfM could play a key role in ensuring engagement of North African countries as well as engagement in this issue from the League of Arab States. In general, ensuring ML is tackled as a regional wide issue is essential and for this UfM can act as a fundamental player and platform. A connection and collaboration among funding authority is also necessary to ensure activities are jointly implemented across both the north and the south of the Mediterranean (to also favor north-south and south-south exchange of knowledge and best practices).
    Then, a need is felt to strengthen the connections between activities (again ML) at sea with those inland. To this end, further work is needed to tackle the point sources of ML pollution through regional approaches on mitigation measures, such as complete banning of single use plastics (not just in the north side of the Med), banning of particularly harmful fishing gears and regional wide awareness campaigns. Studies connecting daily human activities with the plastic waste they contribute too should also be favored to increase consumer/people awareness about the ML pollution consequences of their daily activities.  University of Siena
  • Interreg MED Biodiversity Protection Community (https://backend.interreg-med.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/Sites/Biodiversity_Protection/horizontal_project/5-Deliverables/WP3_CommunityBuilding/3-5_AnimationOfCommunity/3-5-4_ThematicSynthesisReports/panacea_ml_policy_report_wg1_1_1_20190408_gd.pdf; https://biodiversity-protection.interreg-med.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/Sites/Biodiversity_Protection/horizontal_project/5-Deliverables/WP3_CommunityBuilding/3-5_AnimationOfCommunity/3-5-4_ThematicSynthesisReports/PAN_report_Mediterranean_biodiversity_and_marine_litter_LowRes2.pdf).
    1) Enhancing the coordination between conservation and socio-economic sectors, especially maritime, by including the Ecosystem-Based Management principles into other policies (Circular Economy Package, Plastics Strategy), and by fostering a coordinated approach between Protected Areas (PA) managers and other sectors.
    • The civil society should be further engaged and connected to projects to raise awareness of local communities and to involve local and regional authorities, by developing participatory science initiatives on marine/ land litter, monitoring and assessment, etc.
    • Further support to local authorities, PA managers and local communities should be performed, with effective instruments to monitor and manage marine/land litter. This could be done by improving their administrative coordination, capacity building, and technical support, and prioritising upstream solutions in keeping with the waste management hierarchy.
    2) Moreover, support further research to close current knowledge gaps on marine/land litter fluxes, on the impacts of marine/land litter on land-sea socio-economic sectors, on the impacts of marine litter on biota and on human health, especially at sea on the occurrence of Abandoned, Lost or otherwise Discarded Fishing Gear (ALDFG), and on the degradation mechanisms of marine and land litter in the environment, including the consideration of “biodegradable” materials with enhanced degradation properties, as there is the concern that they may break down into non-degradable fragments.
    • The development and employment of common protocols and standardised methods for marine and land litter assessment respectively in the Mediterranean should be supported, especially in relation to different size categories, sampling procedures, and reference values. Specifically, new protocols should be developed to monitor micro-litter, the entanglement of marine species, the effect of litter colonisation by small species, and deep-sea areas on a Mediterranean scale.
    • Further support is needed for scientific research towards a clearer definition of baseline values and reduction targets against which to measure progress in tackling marine litter.
    • In this respect, the Biodiversity Protection community, in its policy paper recommends considering the use of the new “Marine Litter Beach Accumulation Index”, and further investigating the use of animal forests as indicators of entanglement, so as to establish clearer baselines and reduction targets in the context of both the EU MSFD and the UNEP/MAP IMAP. Supporting projects that address sea-based sources of marine litter like shipping, fishing, offshore installations, or dumping of refuse at sea, could be an efficient action to tackle the dissemination of litter reaching the Mediterranean sea and impacting its ecosystem.
    3) This integrated approach should target common species or groups of species in MPAs and in the Mediterranean ecoregions, since it is still majorly lacking. This would enable the consolidation of a regional cooperation mechanism to properly monitor and assess transboundary pressures in the Mediterranean Sea and its trends over time, as partial solutions and actions taken only at local and country level have proved not to be fully effective.
    • Ensuring the creation of a permanent link between the Community outcomes and the existing, Mediterranean-wide knowledge platforms on marine litter, so as to foster the accessibility to available resources, the transferability of the knowledge and tools generated, and the replicability of the solutions tested. Further support should be granted for cross-border cooperation and coordination actions in the Mediterranean, by sharing the knowledge and tools developed by the Interreg MED community for marine litter, especially with partners from non-EU countries.   Intermediterranean Commission of CPMR
  • Preserving and enhancing natural capital by controlling finite stocks and balancing renewable resource flows.
    Optimizing resource yields by circulating products, components and materials at the highest utility.
    Fostering system effectiveness by revealing and designing out negative externalities.
    The circular economy refers to an industrial economy that is restorative by intention; aims to rely on renewable energy; minimises, tracks, and eliminates the use of toxic chemicals; and eradicates waste through careful design. The term goes beyond the mechanics of production and consumption of goods and services in the areas that it seeks to redefine (examples include rebuilding capital, including social and natural, and the shift from consumer to user).
    Building a common understanding of both the sources and impacts of plastic pollution incentivizes cooperation between upstream and downstream actors, as well as coordination across sectors. Engaging a broader set of stakeholders and prioritizing investments that drive changes in behaviour from individual to global levels will help break the cycle of inadequate resources at the local level and prevent plastics from reaching the oceans.
    Stopping plastic waste before it enters waterways and the ocean is the most cost effective. The immediate need is to direct resources to radically improving the capability of local waste and wastewater managers to gain control of, reduce and capture waste plastics.
    Invest in developing methods to characterize the types, sources and behaviours of plastics in riverine and marine environments in order to drive focus toward behavioural change.  Association “Forum”
    1. Fully commit and implement the Regional Plan on Marine Litter Management in the Mediterranean (2013), complemented by the Regional Action Plan on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) in the Mediterranean, and empower the regulatory framework for reducing single-use plastic products, setting ambitious quantitative targets, and incorporating reduction measures including on microplastics in national marine litter agenda;
    2. Prevent and significantly reduce plastic leakage in the Mediterranean Sea by 2025 with clear commitments to reduce plastic consumption, support eco-design and innovation, resource efficiency and effectively improved waste management, as well as enhanced control and prevention measures such as bans, incentives, taxes and extended producer responsibility schemes;
    3. Promote prevention measures and circular approaches to open green economy opportunities, supporting long-term viable recycling targets, adopting national plans to progressively achieve 100% plastic waste collection and recycling by 2025, and addressing the private sector to minimize plastic packaging.
    4. Make the Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme-based marine litter monitoring in the Mediterranean fully operational, providing an assessment of the impacts of marine litter in the Mediterranean Sea and coastal areas on a regular basis;
    5. Further promote Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) schemes towards engaging private companies into recycling schemes, and introduce eco-design and eco-innovation in priority single-use plastic items, elaborate economic incentives to encourage manufacturers to develop innovative designs, and further engage plastic industry and plastic manufacturers in those processes;
    6. Further supported effective management in ports, enhance awareness-raising campaigns targeting shipping companies, and reinforce port reception facilities and procedures for the delivery of waste from ships, particularly through the implementation of two guidelines recently adopted in the context of the MAP –
    Barcelona Convention: i.e. Provision of Reception Facilities in Ports and the Delivery of Ship-Generated Wastes; and Application of Charges at Reasonable Costs for the Use of Port Reception Facilities.
    1. Undertake detailed assessments of wastewater treatment plants for identifying sources of wastes diverted to these treatment plants with the aim to examine their contribution on marine litter and microplastic generation;
    2. Further assess and monitor riverine inputs of marine litter through common standards and methodologies;
    3. Undertake material flow analysis assessment for plastics in all Mediterranean Countries to identify types of plastics used in each country and main purposes/uses;
    4. Further strengthen and expand regional/international cooperation, in particular existing platforms such UNEP/GPML and UNEP/MAP’s Regional Collaboration Platform on Marine Litter in the Mediterranean to promote coordinated action by all regional partners;
    5. Reduce marine pollution, including marine plastic litter and nutrient pollution, contributing to comprehensive life-cycle approaches that include improved waste management and developing new, biodegradable materials that can reduce additional marine plastic litter, including microplastics;
    6. Implement the action plans and decisions of the pollution-related Multilateral Environmental Agreements and of the G7 and G20 to combat marine litter in synergy with the Regional Seas Conventions, as a global momentum towards the long-term elimination of discharges of litter and microplastics to the oceans and seas;
    7. Apply circularity principles to the economic processes, re-shape way of producing and consuming goods, further promote the lifecycle and waste hierarchy approach, resulting in reduction (e.g. addressing over-packaging and discouraging “on-the-go” consumption) and prevention (e.g. design products, particularly those made up of plastic, for greater durability and reuse);
    8. Further support efforts on other land-based sources, sectors and pathways, including the release of microplastics (in particular form textile), which remains poorly known in the region;
    9. Following the EU Plastics Strategy, develop measures to reduce loss or abandonment at sea of fishing gear (e.g. including recycling targets, EPR schemes,
    recycling funds or deposit schemes) and to limit plastic loss from aquaculture (e.g. possible Best Available Techniques Reference Document;16. Further support the implementation of Marine Litter prevention/mitigation measures within MPAs in the Mediterranean.   UNEP/MAP Barcelona Convention
  • Cradle to cradle principle should be empowered by international governments and it should be applied to all sectors. International platforms and institutions should be enhanced to face the issue in a global scale. Additionally, private and public sector need to work together to find solutions.  Underwater Gardens International
  • Dedicate adequate resources to enforce the ban of single-use plastics and proper disposal of vessel garbage at sea linked to use of port facilities
    Ensure the REACH system, and WFD surface water monitoring cover micro plastics
    Reduce direct discharges into the sea  –  banning micro/nano plastic in hygiene, cosmetic and other relevant consumers products, intercepting plastic at river mouth, and improving waste water treatment.  European Environment Agency
  • “The UpM must mobilize all efforts to reduce the ecological footprint of products circulating in the markets. Produce locally by focusing on indigenous products and respecting the seasonality of their production cycles.Re-industrialisation of national economies to avoid excessive dependence on third countries, particularly those to which European industrial production has been relocated for years.Encouraging cooperation networks between local regional players and countries in order to take advantage of the resulting synergies.In the case of maritime waste, a good example to follow could be the ongoing project in the Atlantic Area called CleanAtlantic http://www.cleanatlantic.eu“.   CCDRAlentejo
  • 1) NGOs are essential in awareness rising for action and changing the usage habits of the citizens. Their efforts push the policymakers and plastic sector to act on marine litter. They are excellent facilitators in the emergence of new ideas and initiatives.
    There are hundreds of NGOs working on different fields of marine protection in the pan-European scale. However, the value and use of NGO marine litter  data collection efforts have been discussed in the scientific domain. The decision-makers supported the emergence of citizen science efforts. However, it has been only appreciated as “awareness-raising activities” by the scientist as they are not using advanced monitoring methodologies and applying proper guidelines. The quality assurance of the citizen science data is not easy since the metadata or the qualifications of the survey owners are limited in many cases. NGOs perform clean-ups and monitoring either under marine litter initiatives as European Environment Agency Marine Litter Watch (MLW) (citizen/community science) or their monitoring data might be used as official monitoring by some of the European countries. We should give more focus on persuading the citizens and the NGOs that their efforts in contributing the shape policies are taken seriously. We should make them feel they are the part of the action and solution.
    2) We should be able to monitor ML both at the source and its pathways and the sink (the seas) in order to assess the status and the solutions of the problem effectively. Currently, assessments of plastic pollution tend to focus on the marine domain, i.e. on the state and impact of ML per se. Given the current limitations on monitoring of ML and the complexity of factors affecting the distribution of litter in the sea, trends on the state of pollution say very little on the effectiveness of preventive measures, at least in the short-term. Making use of socio-economic information related to waste prevention and management will enable a more holistic picture of the issue of plastic pollution, “from sources-to-sea”. In addition, rivers are major vehicles of transport of plastic waste into the coastal and marine environments. Therefore, developing monitoring efforts on rivers will generate important data on inputs of waste from land-based sources and therefore on measures implemented to prevent them.
    Sources, drivers and impacts of litter must be analysed and monitored with a common methodology. Currently, the monitoring units and detail on waste do not allow deriving meaningful information on marine litter. They can only be used to get indirect information on the sources and pathways. Once waste and marine litter indicators are tailored to feed each other, we will be able to understand better the sources, drivers, pressures, pathways of marine litter and establish more effective solutions.
    3)  UNEA resolutions are building blocks through the construction of a binding international agreement. A binding international marine litter agreement can accelerate the global efforts for the solution as it can help to harmonise country and regional scale methodology and approaches and regulate the integration of international environmental legislation in regards with to litter.
    A fair approach to achieving a global circular economy is necessary. Economic differences between north and south countries should be considered. Developed countries must help developing countries to build their practices on especially proper waste management. Besides, developed countries must stop using developing countries (where uncontrolled waste dumping percentage is high and recycling capacity is so low) as their dumpsites for plastic waste. Recent amendment of BASEL Convention, which sets out control for the plastic waste trade, should be taken to a further step to ban the waste trade. If one looks at the magnitude of the plastics trade, it is easy to understand the important of BASEL decision: recycled plastic is a globally traded commodity. 78 % of the exports are done by the top ten countries, which are high income at the same time.
    Regional sea conventions are key institutions for the development and implementation of marine litter legislation, regional action plans, and monitoring. Inclusion of marine litter provisions to RCSs existing regulations and protocols has already started. All RCSs produced marine litter action plans recently, covering pan-European seas. Their efforts on regional monitoring of litter is essential to define the status, impacts and trends, which set the basis for policymaking. RCSs communication and cooperation should be strengthened. Besides the RCSs with low resources should be supported financially by their contracting parties and international funding mechanisms.  European Environment Agency